The compendium on ‚ÄúStatistics of Pulses‚ÄĚ is comprised on 261 tables on various aspects of production of pulses on global, national and within India at state levels; availability and import and export of pulses; nutritional values of important pulses; irrigated area under pulses; response of pulses to rhizobium inculcation; varieties developed, possessing resistance/tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses and special traits suiting to different ecologies; projections on demand of pulses up to 2030; seed requirement and strategy to enhance the breeder, foundation and certified seeds; developmental activities to enhance the production of pulses through productivity increase and area expansion; and research infrastructure to take up herculean task to meet the pulses requirement of the nation. This compendium covered as many as 23 grain legumes, meeting the need of grains, vegetable, fodder, industrial medicinal and soil health. This compendium will help the students, teachers and extension/developmental workers in getting the statistical information on pulses in concise form.
The Agricultural Scientists are compelled to search the full form of abbreviations used in different areas of work/study. In order to help them, the Compendium comprised of 2541 abbreviations in as many as 36 subjects in agriculture has been drafted giving their full forms. This will save their time and labour in searching the full forms from different books available in libraries. The number of abbreviations will grow with the advancement in agricultural technology in the next edition.
Attaining food security for a growing population and alleviating poverty while sustaining agricultural systems under the current scenario of depleting natural resources, negative impacts of climatic variability, spiraling cost of inputs and volatile food prices are the major challenges before most of the Asian countries. The Indian agricultural production system faces the daunting task of having to feed 17.5 percent of the global population with only 2.4 per cent of land and 4 per cent of the water resources at its disposal. It is estimated that by 2050, the country‚Äôs food grain requirement will be 377 million tonnes (mt) to feed about 1.7 billion populations as against present production of ~272 mt (2016-17). With the continuously degrading natural resource base compounded further by global warming and associated climate changes ‚Äúbusiness as usual‚ÄĚ approach will not be able to ensure food and nutrition security to the vast population. The challenge is formidable because more has to be produced with reduced carbon and water footprints. Sustainability of agricultural systems is paramount importance for provisioning of food for perpetuity. The principal indicators of non-sustainability of agricultural systems includes: soil erosion, soil organic matter decline, salinization, acidification etc. These are caused mainly by: (i) intensive tillage induced soil organic matter decline, soil structural degradation, water and wind erosion, reduced water infiltration rates, surface sealing and crusting, soil compaction, (ii) insufficient return of organic material, and (iii) monocropping and imbalanced use of various agricultural inputs. Therefore, a paradigm shift in farming practices through eliminating unsustainable parts of conventional agriculture is crucial for future productivity gains while sustaining the natural resources. Rainfed areas, which constitute about 61% of the gross cultivated area, contribute only 42% to the total food production, while 39% of the irrigated area accounts for 58% of the national food basket. The challenge before the Indian agriculture, is to transform rainfed farming into more sustainable and productive systems through efficient use of natural resources. To achieve this, harnessing the potential of integrated farming systems, integrated nutrient management, and integrated water management needs to be undertaken from conservation point of view through location specific technologies. Conservation agriculture (CA) is a way to cultivate crops, based on no vertical perturbation of soil (zero and conservation tillage), with crop residue management and cover crops, in order to offer a permanent soil cover and a natural increase of organic matter content in surface horizons. CA is based on optimizing yields and profits, to achieve a balance of agricultural, economic and environmental benefits. It advocates that the combined social and economic benefits gained from combining production and protecting the environment, including reduced input and labor costs, are greater than those from production alone. CA is reported to reduce production cost by Rs. 2,000 to 3,000/ha, enhance soil quality, C sequestration and build-up in soil organic matter, enhance water and nutrient use efficiency, reduce greenhouse gas emission and improve environmental sustainability, provide opportunities for crop diversification and intensification and improve resource use efficiency through residue decomposition, soil structural improvement, increased recycling and availability of plant nutrients. The C-sequestration potential of CA is estimated to be 1.8 t CO2/ha/year. By sequestering of 1 tonne carbon in humus, it is possible to conserve 83.3 kg N, 20 kg P and 14.3 kg S/ha. Therefore, management of carbon not only helps in sequestration of carbon but also helps in restoring soil fertility. However, lack of appropriate seeders, competing use of crop residues; burning of crop residues and lack of skilled and scientific manpower and inappropriate extension strategies are the major bottlenecks in popularizing CA in India. The present book on ‚ÄėConservation Agriculture for Advancing Food Security in Changing Climate‚Äô being published in two volumes (Vol.1 & 2) deals with various aspects of CA in relation to efficient use of natural resources, crop diversification, complementary interactions among crop-livestock-tree components, soil and water conservation, rehabilitation of degraded lands, improving soil quality, climate smart farming and socio-economical perspectives. Experts and researchers from different agroclimatic zones of the country contributed chapters to enrich the quality of book. The book is divided into eight sections with each section having multiple chapters to cover the section appropriately.
Aquaculture is the farming of fish, crustaceans, molluscs, aquatic plants, and other aquatic organisms. Aquaculture involves cultivating freshwater and saltwater populations under controlled conditions, and can be contrasted with commercial fishing, which is the harvesting of wild fish. It is commonly known as aquafarming. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), aquaculture ‚Äúis understood to mean the farming of aquatic organisms including fish, molluscs, crustaceans and aquatic plants. Farming implies some form of intervention in the rearing process to enhance production, such as regular stocking, feeding, protection from predators, etc. Farming also implies individual or corporate ownership of the stock being cultivated.‚ÄĚ
To come up with new research trends in fisheries we have designed a book- CONTEMPORARY TRENDS IN FISHERIES AND AQUACULTURE. The 28 chapters of this book are a serious work done by researchers, scientists in the field of fisheries and aquaculture. The book covered a wide spectrum of subject related topics such as distribution of aquaculture organisms in world, fishes migration, habitat ecology of crabs, aqua plants and their medical importance.
Some chapters deals with various concepts of aquaculture organisms such as probiotics use in aquaculture, zooplanktons abundance, reproductive system, circulatory system, effects of some harmone on aquaculture organisms and parasites that invade aquaculture organisms. The contributed authors have also worked on serious environmental issues such as assessment of drinking water, microbial quality of fishes, status of fish diseases, and effects of physico-chemical parameters of river regulation etc.
The proceedings of this book describe an attempt for interaction by the juxtaposition of researchers in aquaculture that provided an opportunity for presentations, discussion, and interaction of mutual benefit to the readers.
It is hoped that the book- CONTEMPORARY TRENDS IN FISHERIES AND AQUACULTURE accompany recommendations on future work and research priorities with a modest but useful steps toward supporting the safe and sustainable expansion of aquaculture in developing countries. Much more research is needed and this will require an increased commitment of resources.
We are thankful to all the authors and other contributors for giving their valuable time and data. They are responsible for the work presented in the paper and if any plagiarism question arises they are answerable. The 1st author or corresponded author has to take responsibility. The editiors are not responsible for above issues. We are thankful to ISCA, Kolkata, ISCA President, General Secretaries , ISCA Executive Committee Members, and office bearers of the Indian Science Congress held at Manipur University, Imphal, Manipur from March 16 to 20, 2018 for encouraging us to hold symposium with focal themes, ‚ÄúREACHING THE UNRECAHED‚ÄĚ. We extend our sincere thanks to all contributors who have contributed their articles for publications in these proceedings.
This book will be very useful for researchers, scientists, students and all such entrepreneurs who are working in the field of public health.
Introduction*Geography of Uttarakhand Himalaya*Cultural History of Uttarakhand Himalaya*Social Structure and Caste System*Cultural Identity of Uttarakhand Himalaya*Major Pilgrimages and Cultural Integration: Past and Present*Temples of Uttarakhand Himalaya*Gods, Goddesses and Folk Deities*Fairs and Festivals*Folk Songs, Dances and Musical Instruments*Cultural Procession (Jatar)*Cultural Realms*Geography and Culture*Culture and Geography*Case Study of Selected Villages and Tribal Communities