This Anthology of poem is typically Indian poetry in English. The idea, concept, including the locale and the landscape, all are Indians in these poems. Only the poems are written English. Since the time of the growth of Indian Nationalism after the British colonization in India, English in India enjoyed a special status. English was the medium of teaching and learning at all levels of education. Even after the decolonization of India in 1947, the Indian constitution grants the status of English in our country as âAn Associate Official Language of Indiaâ. Indeed a particular variety of British Standard English is one of the Indian languages. The undeniable fact is that English has integrated various regions of the country with all their cultural, linguistic, religious and ethnic diversities into one India. Thus English is the Soul of Modern India. Indian Poetry in English does not mean any regional poetry written either in Hindi or Bengali or Tamil or any other regional languages. Indian Poetry in English is national in character. The last four poems are on aggressively friendly Nature of Kearney, Nebraska, the place in the mid-west of the U.S.A. where I have been for the last two months with my daughter and her family. The feeling of the poems in this anthology is the feelings of neither Indians nor Americans and English men. The feeling is also the universal feeling of Mankind. And English may be the comfortable medium of that universal feeling of men of all races, casts, creeds and religions.
Over the years there has been an increasing trend in the production of horticultural crops in the national scenario. During 2015-16 the food grains and horticultural production has been recorded as 269 and 283 MT respectively. Further, there has also been an increase in the area and production of fruit crops from 2001 to 2015 (4.01 to 7.21 million ha and 43.00 to 88.97 million tonnes respectively). This shows the positive outcome of emphasis given to horticulture growth and development in the last two plan period. The contribution of the north eastern states in the horticultural cropped area and production at the national level is about 8.45% and 5.24% respectively (Department of Agriculture, Cooperation and Farmers Welfare, 2014-15). Horticulture has provided a viable alternative for diversification of agricultural land use, employment generation and for ensuring food, nutritional and livelihood security.The north eastern region of India comprising the states of Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Tripura and Sikkim has vast bio-diversity and is home to a unique but fragile ecology. The geo-climatic situation in the region offers excellent scope for growing different horticultural crops including fruits, vegetables, spices, plantation crops, medicinal and aromatic plants. These states have been producing many such crops, which have very high potential for supplying to the export markets in fresh and processed forms. However due to the various problems such as lack of transport, infrastructure, poor connectivity and lack of awareness etc., the potential of these crops have not been explored satisfactorily. In order to bring about an understanding and to attempt connecting the missing links in the horticulture development in holistic manner, the National Seminar under the broad theme âSustainable Horticulture vis-a-vis Changing Environmentâ was organised by the Horticultural Society of North East India during 26-28 February 2015. This Society was established on 24th May 2004 with the base at Department of Horticulture, School of Agricultural Sciences and Rural Development, Nagaland University, Medziphema, Nagaland. The need for such a society was felt to harness the vast potential of the unique flora of north eastern region and to encourage various areas of research studies in the process of human resource development. Over the years the society members have been actively involved in several extension activities such as Kheti Mela, Kisan Goshti and has also conducted several hands-on training for the farmers, imparting the agricultural and horticultural technology garnered from the research works carried out in the School of Agricultural Sciences and Rural Development Nagaland University, Medziphema Campus. The society also aims to be a repository of the immense knowledge gained over time from all over so that they are fruitfully disseminated to the people of this region especially the farmers who form the backbone of the society.
This book is a compedium of the lead papers and research papers presented during the National Seminar by eminent scientists covering wide area of topics pertaining to horticulture under the changing environment. To merit publication of this book, topics on emerging issues on horticulture technology have been added by members of the society who have had over fifteen years of experience in the field under the typical growing conditions of the north eastern hill region of India. The ethnic communities of the region still maintains a greatly evolved traditional system of cultivation.
Such preservation and utilization of traditional knowledge is important to mitigate the vagaries caused by changing climate which we are now experiencing in recent times. This is being taken into consideration in various experiments carried out in the region. The scientific information and the blending of traditional knowledge of local people especially the farmers need proper documentation for posterity and use such indigenous knowledge and technology to mitigate problems of environmental upheavals in the field of agriculture. Soil sustainability is important in any production systems. Focus has been given in the organic cultivation of crops which is viable in this region as the use of chemicals is meagre. Emphasis in research therefore is given on the organic production of horticultural crops and the results thereof has been recorded in this publication.
Recent Approaches for Management of Plant Diseases encompasses the coordinated interaction between plant and microbes, disease development and provide deeper knowledge on detection of pathogens and management strategies developed for fungal, bacterial, nematode and viral diseases of economically important cereals, pulses, oilseeds, medicinal and aromatic plants as well as plantation crops, a vital resources for researchers and students of plant protection.
This book âProduct diversification in plantation cropsâ is an effort to bring out the current and emerging developments on processing, value addition and product diversification aspects of plantation crops that will certainly be helpful in planning the research and development programmes in these areas. This book would be highly useful to students, researchers, officials from developmental agencies, extension personnel, farmers, food processing engineers and technologists, plantation consultants, entrepreneurs and other stakeholders
Sahiwal is one of the important breeds of India known for its superiority in milk production and other inherent abilities. However, due to indiscriminate crossbreeding, the population of this valuable germplasm has declined over years in India. Presently, efforts are being made extensively to increase its population size besides improving its genetic potential. Since the breeding strategy for genetic improvement of any breed requires the fair understanding of the genetic and phenotypic parameters and also its genetic worth for milk production, it becomes imperative to conduct scientific study on these aspects. The book on âGenetic Evaluation of Sahiwal Cattleâ is a compilation of the research work carried out on this breed of cattle maintained at the Cattle Yard of NDRI, Karnal for more than 60 years covering the different areas of Animal Breeding. The book covers the research findings of almost all the areas of animal breeding viz., sex ratio, body weights and growth rates, milk production, reproduction, lactation curve modelling, stayability and genetic evaluation of Sahiwal cows and sires. It contains the results of most of the research work conducted by the postgraduate and doctoral students of Dairy Cattle Breeding Division of NDRI, Karnal under the Chairmanship of the first author. As this book will provide the overall information on the Sahiwal cattle, it will serve as a useful ready reckoner for students, researchers and other stakeholders.
The Agricultural Scientists are compelled to search the full form of abbreviations used in different areas of work/study. In order to help them, the Compendium comprised of 2541 abbreviations in as many as 36 subjects in agriculture has been drafted giving their full forms. This will save their time and labour in searching the full forms from different books available in libraries. The number of abbreviations will grow with the advancement in agricultural technology in the next edition.
Animal physiology is the study of the internal physical and chemical functions of animals. Professionals in this field may explore the makeup of animals, including their genetics, behaviours and their biological structure. A degree in animal physiology can lead to opportunities in a wide variety of areas, including fisheries, veterinary sciences and pharmaceutical research. This book entitled âAnimal Physiologyâ consists of 25 chapters. The chapters are mainly focused on the physiological changes in the animals when exposed to toxicants, drugs, phytochemicals, etc., The authors have put an effort to explain each and every point of respective studies. This book has been brought to the society, keeping in mind students of graduate and post graduate, research scholars and teaching faculty.
This practical manual is an excellent compilation of techniques for researchers interested in various aspects dealing with cyanobacteria, besides providing basic knowledge on this fascinating group of organisms. Despite the availability of similar compilations, this stands out in terms of its clarity and âsimple to understand and do- languageâ, besides information on the latest advances in the field. Beginning with the basics of isolation, followed by purification and identification, the manual uses simple and effective vocabulary for those working with cyanobacteria, beginners or interested scholars. An important inclusion is the section on microscopy, from light microscropy to electron microscopy, which is a fascinating topic for those interested in understanding the ultrastructural features of these photosynthetic prokaryotes. Axenization and getting clones are one of the difficult aspects of cyanobacteriology and these details are given well, with illustrations. The protocols for lipid and protein extraction are explained in detail, and the use of molecular tools is also dealt suitably. The chapter on preservation of cyanobacteria, an important set of techniques for maintenance and storage, provides useful information not only for researchers, but also for germplasm culture collection curators. Overall, this compilation will provide useful for all researchers, particularly those interested in using cyanobacteria as their workhorses in their research programs.
Attaining food security for a growing population and alleviating poverty while sustaining agricultural systems under the current scenario of depleting natural resources, negative impacts of climatic variability, spiraling cost of inputs and volatile food prices are the major challenges before most of the Asian countries. The Indian agricultural production system faces the daunting task of having to feed 17.5 percent of the global population with only 2.4 per cent of land and 4 per cent of the water resources at its disposal. It is estimated that by 2050, the countryâs food grain requirement will be 377 million tonnes (mt) to feed about 1.7 billion populations as against present production of ~272 mt (2016-17). With the continuously degrading natural resource base compounded further by global warming and associated climate changes âbusiness as usualâ approach will not be able to ensure food and nutrition security to the vast population. The challenge is formidable because more has to be produced with reduced carbon and water footprints. Sustainability of agricultural systems is paramount importance for provisioning of food for perpetuity. The principal indicators of non-sustainability of agricultural systems includes: soil erosion, soil organic matter decline, salinization, acidification etc. These are caused mainly by: (i) intensive tillage induced soil organic matter decline, soil structural degradation, water and wind erosion, reduced water infiltration rates, surface sealing and crusting, soil compaction, (ii) insufficient return of organic material, and (iii) monocropping and imbalanced use of various agricultural inputs. Therefore, a paradigm shift in farming practices through eliminating unsustainable parts of conventional agriculture is crucial for future productivity gains while sustaining the natural resources. Rainfed areas, which constitute about 61% of the gross cultivated area, contribute only 42% to the total food production, while 39% of the irrigated area accounts for 58% of the national food basket. The challenge before the Indian agriculture, is to transform rainfed farming into more sustainable and productive systems through efficient use of natural resources. To achieve this, harnessing the potential of integrated farming systems, integrated nutrient management, and integrated water management needs to be undertaken from conservation point of view through location specific technologies. Conservation agriculture (CA) is a way to cultivate crops, based on no vertical perturbation of soil (zero and conservation tillage), with crop residue management and cover crops, in order to offer a permanent soil cover and a natural increase of organic matter content in surface horizons. CA is based on optimizing yields and profits, to achieve a balance of agricultural, economic and environmental benefits. It advocates that the combined social and economic benefits gained from combining production and protecting the environment, including reduced input and labor costs, are greater than those from production alone. CA is reported to reduce production cost by Rs. 2,000 to 3,000/ha, enhance soil quality, C sequestration and build-up in soil organic matter, enhance water and nutrient use efficiency, reduce greenhouse gas emission and improve environmental sustainability, provide opportunities for crop diversification and intensification and improve resource use efficiency through residue decomposition, soil structural improvement, increased recycling and availability of plant nutrients. The C-sequestration potential of CA is estimated to be 1.8 t CO2/ha/year. By sequestering of 1 tonne carbon in humus, it is possible to conserve 83.3 kg N, 20 kg P and 14.3 kg S/ha. Therefore, management of carbon not only helps in sequestration of carbon but also helps in restoring soil fertility. However, lack of appropriate seeders, competing use of crop residues; burning of crop residues and lack of skilled and scientific manpower and inappropriate extension strategies are the major bottlenecks in popularizing CA in India. The present book on âConservation Agriculture for Advancing Food Security in Changing Climateâ being published in two volumes (Vol.1 & 2) deals with various aspects of CA in relation to efficient use of natural resources, crop diversification, complementary interactions among crop-livestock-tree components, soil and water conservation, rehabilitation of degraded lands, improving soil quality, climate smart farming and socio-economical perspectives. Experts and researchers from different agroclimatic zones of the country contributed chapters to enrich the quality of book. The book is divided into eight sections with each section having multiple chapters to cover the section appropriately.