The term biotechnology was used for the first time by Karl Erkey, a Hungarian Engineer in 1919. Although biotechnology has been an integral part of ancient civilizations as per records, it has evolved into a comprehensive yet elaborate, extensive yet precise and indispensible subject for research being rooted and connected to all basic areas of life sciences in terms of research and analysis.
Biotechnology is based on use of biological agents, systems and mechanisms for generation of useful products and services by application of tools and techniques for overall benefit to mankind. It encompasses the intricacies of all branches of life science amalgamating them with broad research areas of environment, agriculture, pollution, drugs and pharmaceuticals, vaccines, detailed structure of bio-molecules and their functions.
An altogether new era has dawned upon biotechnology, as a result of which it has endowed and empowered us with novel, modified and improved products. These products have become a source of economic upliftment and development, which are also proved to be foundation stones for industries and capital generation. We are living in the age of genomics which has further evolved into proteomics, metabolomics, metagenomics etc. and new branches based on application of software programmes for data research, analysis and interpretation- bioinformatics and biostatistics.
Biotechnology thus offers a plethora of opportunities and avenues to people who wish to pursue their career in biotechnology. Keeping this in view, the present book was planned and designed as a source of crisp, concise and complete information under one roof. We hope that the students preparing for different competitive exams find this book helpful and informative for achieving their goal. A sincere effort has been made to present information in short answer type format and multiple choice question format so as to cover the basics, finer points, critical nuggets of information and contemporary news as well. We hope to further such academic endeavors in future and hope for a good response.
¬® AGROMICROBES : AN OVERVIEW ¬® SIGNAL MOLECULES IN LEGUME-RHIZOBIUM SYMBIOSIS ¬® RHIZOBIUM - LEGUME INTERACTION: A TWO WAY MOLECULAR CONVERSATION ¬® POTENTIALS AND PROSPECTS OF RHIZOBIUM BIOFERTILISER ¬® INOCULATION OF Rhizobium/ Azorhizobium CAUUNODANS IN Sesbani A SPECIES ¬® Azospirillum - CURRENT STATUS ¬® SYSTEMATICS TAXONOMY AND PHYLOGENY OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI - AN OVERVIEW ¬® MYCORRHIZAL TECHNOLOGY IN FORESTRY AND AGRICULTURE ¬® PHOSPHATE SOLUBILISING MICROORGANISMS - AN OVERVIEW ¬® BASIC AND APPLIED STUDIES OF THE AZOLLA-ANABAENA SYMBIOSIS ¬® CYANOBACTERIA - A POTENTIAL BIO-NITROGEN SOURCE IN INTEGRATED NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS FOR RICE CROPS. ¬® RECLAMATION OF SALT AFFECTED SOIL THROUGH SALT SCAVENGING SYANOBACTERIA ¬® ANOXYGENIC PHOTOTROPHIC BACTERIA AND THEIR ROLE IN SOIL NUTRIENT CYCLES ¬® SIGNIFICANCE (OF MICROBIAL INOCULANTS IN ORGANIC MATTER DECOMPOSITION ¬® PRODUCTS OF TRICHODERMA VIRIDE AND BACIUU8 SUBTILIS FOR BIOCONTROL OF MACROPHOMINA PHASEOLINA IN PULSES AND OILSEEDS ¬® TRICHODERMA SPECIES AS MICROBIAL SUPPRESSIVE AGENTS OF PLANT PATHOGENS ¬® HYDROGEN METABOLIZING MICROORGANISMS AND THEIR. ROLE IN SOIL FERTILITY ¬® EDIBLE MUSHROOM FUNGI AND THEIR POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS
The term biotechnology is a fusion of biology and technology. The area is multidisciplinary, vast and highly divergent, which has made precise definition of the subject rather difficult, it is a basically the controlled use of biological agents, such as micro-organisms or cellular components for human beneficial use.This book entitled ‚ÄúBiotechnology for Human welfare‚ÄĚ consists of 34 chapters. The chapters are mainly focused on the newer technological aspects in molecular biology, bioremediation, toxicology etc.,The authors have put an effort to explain each and every point in the procedures. This book has been brought to the society, keeping in mind students of graduate and post graduate, research scholars and teaching faculty.
Contents: Section I Application of advanced technology for improvement of oilseed crops,Section II Less known plants of medicinal importance and as non-conventional sources of food, Section III Microbial ecology,ecosystem and host-parasite interactions,Section IV Special topics,Index.
Contents: Section A: Taxonomy, Diversity of aquatic fungi in Kumaun Himalaya: zoosporic fungi,Glimpses of conidial aquatic fungi in Kumaun Himalaya,Section B: Pathology, Microbes and their activity in the north-east India, Phyllosphere and rhizosphere microorganism of Camellia sinensis grown in the eastern Himalayan regions,Himalayan trees: fungal diseases and control strategies,Nematode problems and their management in India.
¬® Theory of Atomic and Molecular Orbitals ¬® Molecular Orbital Theory ¬® Linear Combination of Atomic Orbitals and Valence Bond Theory ¬® Resonance Structures ¬® Sigma Bonds and Pi Bonds ¬® Electrovalent Bond ¬® Covalent Bond ¬® Van Der Waals Force and Metallic Bond ¬® Molecular Geometry and Shape of Orbitals ¬® Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals and Vsepr Theory ¬® Protein Folding ¬® Protein Denaturation ¬® Molecular Chaperones ¬® Molecular Forces in Relation to Protein Structure ¬® Helices And Turns ¬® Protein ‚Äď Protein Interactions ¬® Protein-Dna Interaction ¬® Dna-Drug Interactions, Metalloproteins and Protein - Ligand Interactions ¬® Interaction of Protein With Lipids and Carbohydrates ¬® Pi‚Ä¶Pi Interaction and C-H‚Ä¶.Pi Interaction ¬® Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy ¬® Infrared Spectroscopy ¬® Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ¬® Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy
The knowledge of plant systematics is useful in understanding flora at fundamental taxonomic, structural, functional and metabolic level since it gives a comprehensive and complete information based on biological classification of plants. Each plant is assigned a proper position in the hierarchy of flora, with checkpoints and filters to store useful information and keep some in storage.
Plant improvisation in terms of modifications or introduction of altogether new features can be done using modern biotechnological techniques based on tissue culture, molecular biology, enzymology, fermentation, plant breeding and genetics, microbiology etc. for improved plant growth, better adaptation and survival, crop yield in terms of improved disease and climate change resistance etc., converting plant bioresources into dynamic bioreactors which can become sources of useful metabolites, compounds, drugs, enzymes, vaccines etc. In addition new hybrid varieties with improved features can be developed after focusing upon plant species amenable to genetic manipulation. Large information thus generated can be interpreted through predictive-modeling studies and bio-informatic tools can be utilized for analyzing data generated spatially and temporally over the years.
The UGC and BCST sponsored National Conference held during November 28-30, 2017 at P. G. Department of Biotechnology, T. M. Bhagalpur University, Bhagalpur has focused on urgent issues related to historical prospective, challenges and opportunities, methods in restoring the validity, recent advances and future prospects of research in plant systematics and biotechnology have been compiled in the present form of the Proceedings. Each paper has been written in lucid scientific manner, following guidelines of standard research journals with adequate number of tables, figures, graphs and latest references. Development of transgenic plants, emerging technologies for crop improvement and statistical computing in bio-statistics with SPSS have been discussed in detail.
The present book will prove useful to the research scholars and scientists of the various disciplinces in their ongoing research activities.